The new missile was unveiled in a military parade in Tehran on Friday.
The video also contained telemetry camera footage from four different angles which, according to its caption, showed the moment when the warhead of the missile was discharged.
That missile exploded shortly after that launch.
The missile, dubbed Khoramshahr, reportedly has a range of 1,250 miles and can carry multiple warheads.
"Imagine what would happen if Iran would obtain nuclear weapons, which is where she is headed".
The missile was launched from an unknown location. If he decides that it is not, it could open the way for renewed United States sanctions and perhaps the collapse of the agreement. This range can oretically reach Israel, sworn enemy of Iran, and us bases in region.
The official did not know if Trump received an intelligence briefing about the launch before sending the tweet.
The next major deadline comes in October when Trump will decide whether to certify that Iran is complying with the agreement, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. Trump said in a tweet posted late on September 23.
"The ballistic missile which Iran fired is a provocation of the United States and its allies, including Israel", Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman said in a statement, adding it was proof of Tehran's ambition to become a world power, Xinhua reported.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu addressing the United Nations last week where he urged the world body to "fix or nix" the Iranian nuclear agreement.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu addresses world leaders at the 72nd UN General Assembly at UN headquarters in NY on September 19, 2017.
Earlier this week, Trump had urged the worldwide community not to let the Iranian regime to continue destabilizing activities as it builds "dangerous missiles".
"We will promote our defensive and military power as much as we deem necessary", Rouhani said. "We seek no one's permission to defend our land".
Tehran says the tests are exclusively for defensive purposes and notes that the nuclear accord does cover its missile program.
Tehran says that the missiles are entirely legitimate under the terms of the deal, as they are not created to carry a nuclear warhead.